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ects of Hyaluronan-based Medic
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MessaggioInviato: 22 Lug 2019 12:42:29    Oggetto:  ects of Hyaluronan-based Medic
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"


SYDNEY, July 1 (Xinhua) -- Australian house prices rose by 0.5 percent in June according to Corelogic's June Home Value Index received on Friday.


Sydney and Melbourne posted the biggest gains when it came to Australia's capital cities, rising by over 11 percent in the past year.


Commonwealth Bank of Australian senior economist Michael Workman said in a note on Friday that today's 0.5 percent rise in June dwelling prices would not come as a surprise to those following the property markets in the major cities.


""The RBA's (Reserve Bank of Australia's) May rate cut, and the valid prospect of more cuts, have lifted buyer confidence into the traditionally more subdued winter housing market,""Workman said.


""June's price rise was mainly driven by the two major cities, Melbourne and Sydney experiencing reasonably firm economic growth, population and employment outcomes.""


He noted that annual dwelling price growth for both cities was near 11 percent and well above the national outcome of 8 percent.


Brisbane recorded an annual price rise of 5.3 percent, Hobart was up 6.2 percent, Canberra 3.9 percent and Adelaide 2.2 percent.


Perth recorded an annual price fall of 4.7 percent while Darwin fell 1.1 percent.


""The two major issues looming for the housing markets are the record level of new supply to be delivered over the coming year and whether APRA (Australian Prudential Regulation Authority) will decide to tighten lending guidelines for mortgage providers,""Workman explained.


""New supply will dampen dwelling price rises.""


He noted however that the detached housing market might remain resilient because most of the new supply was in multi-unit developments.


""APRA may delay a response if they consider that the subdued growth in investor housing credit reduces risks.""


""The RBA will be weighing up the issues around housing markets but we expect them to cut the cash rate two more times over the rest of the year because of lower than expected inflation outcomes.""

" Play Again by Viscos Dedicated to effective solutions for joint health and natural beauty.

With HA
, Size Matters

Normal, healthy synovial fluid contains hyaluronan (HA) with a molecular weight of 2-3 million daltons (MDa). This polymer of d-glucuronic acid and n-acetyl-d-glucosamine can be thousands of disaccharide units in length.

This very large compound traps up to 1,000 times its own weight in water1 contributing to the cushioning and lubricating properties of synovial HA with the larger sized molecules associated with different physiologic effects than smaller HA molecules.2,3 This is important since both the concentration and the molecular weight of HA decreases in inflamed joints.4,5
Smaller molecular weight HA is not the same as the normal size molecule.3 As the molecular weight decreases
, fluid viscosity decreases.6 Based on studies of intra-articular injections of HA in humans and rats, the higher molecular weight HA molecules can relieve pain.7,8,9 Larger molecules are associated with greater and longer-lasting pain reduction in rats.10
This suggests that the reduced HA concentration and molecular weight contributes to or fails to ameliorate joint pain. The smaller HA molecules are less beneficial to cartilage elasticity, as well.11 This may explain subsequent cartilage damage in inflamed joints.

Hundreds of studies have examined the physiologic roles of HA and found HA involved in anti-inflammation
, anti-oxidation, immune cell activation in addition to joint lubrication, cartilage support and pain control.3 Molecular weight affects HA biological activity in all of these roles. The anti-inflammatory character changes to one that is pro-inflammatory as size decreases.12 Smaller sized molecules participate in the activation of eosinophils.13 Larger molecules suppress cytokine production in mice.14,15

Hyaluronan physiologic function varies with molecular weight. Intra-articular injection of 1.5 MDa in canine joints that normally contain 2-3 MDa HA failed to provide benefit.4 This is consistent with studies in rabbits showing that the benefit is less when HA replacement is done with a molecular weight below that of the native HA.16

Similar studies in humans with existing products for intra-articular injection found differing efficacies on a variety of parameters; molecular weight varied among the products.17 Not all HA is the same.17,18

Summary
High molecular weight HA is associated with the beneficial roles that we expect in a healthy joint
, so it is important to support the synovial HA in a stressed joint with a molecular weight that matches native HA: 2 to 3 MDa.
When it comes to HA - Bigger IS better!

References
1. Laurent, T., & Fraser, J. (1992). Hyaluronan. Faseb J, 6 (7)
, 2397-2404.
2. Carmenisch, T., & MacDonald, J. (2000). Hyaluronan: is bigger better? Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol , 23 (4)
, 431-433.
3. Bucci, L., & Turpin, A. (2004). Will the real hyaluronan please stand up? J of Appl Nutr , 54 (1)
, 10-33.
4. Smith, G., Mickler, E., Myers
, S., & Brandt, K. (2001). Effect of intraarticular hyaluronan injection on synovial fluid hyaluronan in the early stage of canine post-traumatic osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol , 28 (6), 1341-1346.
5. Budsberg
, S., Lenz, M., & Thonar, E. (2006). Serum and synovial fluid concentrations of keratan sulfate and hyaluronan in dogs with induced stifle joint osteoarthritis following cranial cruciate ligament transection. Am J Vet Res
, 67 (3), 429-432.
6. Kuo, J.-W. (2005). Practical Aspects of Hyaluronan-based Medical Products. CRC Press.
7. Moreland, L. (2003). Intra-articular hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) and hylans for the treatment of osteoarthritis: mechanisms of action. .
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MessaggioInviato: 22 Lug 2019 12:42:29    Oggetto: Adv






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